Science2014-06-10 5:24 PM

研究发现生物多样性的全球性改变,而非丧失 Assemblage Time Series Reveal Biodiversity Change but Not Systematic Loss

论文摘要 

研究人员说,尽管人类的活动加快了世界各地物种灭绝的速度,但在所有的海洋与陆地生境中还没有出现生物多样性的持续丧失。相反,据一项新的研究披露,从一个生态系统至另外一个生态系统所发生的持续性的系统化改变是其物种的组合方式。这些发现表明,动植物的新的群落可能正在出现——而保护措施应该将其重点从生物多样性的丧失转移到生物多样性的改变。

Maria Dornelas及其同事分析了海洋与陆地生物群落的100个时间序列以得出这些结论,这里包括了6百万个物种丰度的记录以及对在过去150年中3万5000个植物与动物物种的描述。研究人员将局部多样性,或称α 多样性变化与群落组成多样性或称β多样性改变进行了比较并发现,在所有类型的生态系统及气候体系中,物种周转率始终比那些模型所预测的要更高。

他们说,这一令人惊讶的发现可能主要是因为外来入侵物种——它们已在全球各地快速扩散——及物种因应气候变化而改变其活动范围所造成的。Dornelas及其他的研究人员说,他们的发现没有否定世界上许多物种及生境正受到严重威胁的事实。但他们提出,科学家及决策者应该扩大保护科学及规划的关注点以同时涵盖生物多样性变化及丧失。

由John Pandolfi 和 Catherine Lovelock 撰写的一篇《观点栏目》更为详细地讨论了这些发现及其意义.

Abstract 

The extent to which biodiversity change in local asseMBLages contributes to global biodiversity loss is poorly understood. We analyzed 100 time series from biomes across Earth to ask how diversity within assemblages is changing through time. We quantified patterns of temporal α diversity, measured as change in local diversity, and temporal β diversity, measured as change in community composition. Contrary to our expectations, we did not detect systematic loss of α diversity. However, community composition changed systematically through time, in excess of predictions from null models. HeteroGENEous rates of environmental change, species range shifts associated with climate change, and biotic homogenization may explain the different patterns of temporal α and β diversity. Monitoring and understanding change in species composition should be a conservation priority.

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