Science2014-06-13 2:38 PM

呼吁社会科学透明化 Promoting Transparency in Social Science Research

论文摘要 

美国加州大学伯克利分校等处的科学家提出,社会科学已经变得日益流行——而且其可信度也在一直增加,因此研究人员应该做更多的工作让他们的实验及其结果都变得更加透明,从而使这种趋势能够继续下去。相关文章发表于2014年1月1日的《science》杂志上。

据本期《政策论坛》的作者说,社会科学已经变得日益流行——而且其可信度也在一直增加,因此研究人员应该做更多的工作让他们的实验及其结果都变得更加透明,从而使这种趋势能够继续下去。

Edward Miguel及其同事提出,增加使用随机对照试验已经让社会科学家们走上了正确的道路,迫使他们公开披露实验的细节、方法及结果。据这些作者披露,但是,有许多新的倡议已经超越这些标准的做法以保持公众的信任(更不用提为保持其他科学家们的信任)。

Miguel及他的同事援引了一些杂志和机构作为例子,他们已经开始要求研究人员公开列出研究细节,这些细节包括他们选择性地从报告中剔除出去的数据或他们是如何得出其最终样本应有的大小的。这组作者还说,某些社会科学家已经开始发布分析前计划,这些计划可能包括供他人审查用的统计模型、因变量、协变量或测试修正。他们说,许多社会科学家正在改进统计技术及改善评估方法,让实验结果的复制和确认(或挑战)也变得更为容易。

这些作者提出,这些在透明度上的举措可同时应用于实验性和非实验性的研究,他们呼吁学者、杂志编辑及资助者等支持创立能促进这些举措的机构。

Abstract 

There is growing appreciation for the advantages of experimentation in the social sciences. Policy-relevant claims that in the past were backed by theoretical arguments and inconclusive correlations are now being investigated using more credible methods. Changes have been particularly pronounced in development economics, where hundreds of randomized trials have been carried out over the last decade. When experimentation is difficult or impossible, researchers are using quasi-experimental designs. Governments and advocacy groups display a growing appetite for evidence-based policy-making. In 2005, Mexico established an independent government agency to rigorously evaluate social programs, and in 2012, the U.S. OffICE of Management and Budget advised federal agencies to present evidence from randomized program evaluations in budget requests.

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