Science2014-06-13 5:33 PM

对能探知错误的大脑区域的正确看法 Action Monitoring and Medial Frontal Cortex: Leading Role of Supplementary Motor Area

论文摘要 

一项新的研究提示,科学家们必须重新审视大脑中能够首先探知我们的行动有误的区域。评估我们行动后果的能力——即认识到什么时候它们会导致问题甚或危险——对我们的适应能力是至关重要的。大脑内的被称作嘴侧扣带区(Rostral Cingulate Zone),或RCZ的区域,一直被认为是在这一功能中扮演着某种关键的角色。然而,这个区域基本的解剖基础却从来未被很好地理解。用植入到大脑内的电极进行记录,Francesca Bonini及其同事对5个接受癫痫手术评估患者的神经元电活动进行了评估。患者进行了一项西门反应任务(Simon Task),在该任务中,他们被要求以某种方式对一个屏幕上的五颜六色的物体做出反应;其中的一些反应是错误的。研究人员发现,与普遍假定的情况相反,大脑的辅助运动区——它也有助于对运动的控制——在评估行动及发现错误中扮演着主要的角色,它能非常迅速地做到这一点。在这一过程中,RCZ是在较迟的时候激活的。这些数据对基本行动监控及错误处理的脑部网络首次提供了精确的描述.

Abstract 

The capacity to evaluate the outcomes of our actions is fundamental for adapting and optimizing behavior and depends on an action-monitoring system that assesses ongoing actions and detects errors. The neuronal network underlying this executive function, classically attributed to the rostral cingulate zone, is poorly characterized in humans, owing to the limited number of direct neurophysiological data. Using intracerebral recordings, we show that the leading role is played by the supplementary motor area (SMA), which rapidly evaluates successful and erroneous actions. The rostral part of medial prefrontal cortex, driven by the SMA, was activated later and exclusively in the case of errors. This suggests a hierarchical organization of the different frontal regions involved in implementation of action monitoring and error processing.

Editor's Summary

Oops, That's Not Right…

Evaluating our actions, and detecting our errors, is crucial for adaptive behavior. These fundamental executive functions are intensively studied in cognitive and social neuroscience, but their anatomical basis remains poorly characterized. Using intracerebral electroencephalography in patients being prepared for epilepsy surgery, Bonini et al. (p. 888) found that, contrary to what is widely assumed, the supplementary motor area, and not the anterior cingulate cortex, plays a leading role in these processes. The data provide a precise spatio-temporal description of the cortical network underlying action monitoring and error processing.

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