Science2014-06-13 5:44 PM

纺纱成扭曲之肌 Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread

论文摘要 

请想象一下能对温度做出反应的衣服,它能张开(或关闭)其孔隙好让穿着它的人觉得凉爽(或暖和)。这种技术已经指日可待了——一项新的研究描述了一个简单的获得强韧制动器,或人工肌肉的通路,而这种新的技术或可帮助研制能调适温度衣物的科学尝试。Carter Haines及其同事证明,通过拧搓高强度的多聚物纤维(如那些用做钓丝及缝线的纤维),直至使其盘绕起来,就可将这些高强度的多聚物纤维转变成有效的人工肌肉。据研究人员披露,通过这种极端的拧搓而产生的人工肌肉与同样长度和重量的人类肌肉相比,前者能提起的负荷是后者的100倍。这种新的人工肌肉可由一系列的刺激所触发,其中包括温度,Haines及其他的研究人员利用温度展示了这种织物和空隙开关的能力,它们检测热量并做出相应的开关反应。他们说,类似于碳纳米管纱线,扭搓这些多聚物纤维使得它们能够具有扭力肌肉的功能。据研究人员披露,该新型致动器可达到能与形状记忆多聚物及形状记忆合金——它们通常更为昂贵且常常效能较低——相比的能量密度。该新型的人工肌肉可在用于例如机器人及假肢等范围广泛的实体大小及纳米尺度的结构,在这些用途中,研究人员希望能做到范围广泛的调控。由Jinkai Yuan 和 Philippe Poulin撰写的一篇《观点栏目》文章对这些发现及它们的应用进行了更为详细的讨论。

Abstract 

The high cost of powerful, large-stroke, high-stress artificial muscles has combined with performance limitations such as low cycle life, hysteresis, and low efficiency to restrict applications. We demonstrated that inexpensive high-strength polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread can be easily transformed by twist insertion to provide fast, scalable, nonhysteretic, long-life tensile and torsional muscles. Extreme twisting produces coiled muscles that can contract by 49%, lift loads over 100 times heavier than can human muscle of the same length and weight, and generate 5.3 kilowatts of mechanical work per kilogram of muscle weight, similar to that produced by a jet engine. Woven textiles that change porosity in response to temperature and actuating window shutters that could help conserve energy were also demonstrated. Large-stroke tensile actuation was theoretically and experimentally shown to result from torsional actuation.

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