Nature2014-06-18 4:01 PM

对宇宙所做的新的模拟研究 Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation

论文摘要 

关于星系形成和演化的传统宇宙模型所取得的成功程度有限:我们观测到了椭圆星系和螺旋星系,而这些模型却并未生成一组由这两种不同星系组成的星系。一项新的模拟工作借助计算能力和算法方面的最新进展,成功重新生成了由椭圆星系和螺旋星系组成的一组星系,重现了星系在星团中所观察到的分布、暗物质和可见物质的演化以及氢的大尺度特点,同时在小尺度上也与星系中金属(比氦重的元素)和氢的含量相符。这项计算工作以前所未有的精度跟踪了从“大爆炸”后不久到今天的宇宙累积情况,跨越超过130亿年的宇宙演化时间。

Abstract 

Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the ‘cosmic web’ of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies, because of numerical inaccuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, they were unable to track the small-scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a cube of 106.5 megaparsecs a side. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the observed distribution of galaxies in clusters and characteristics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time matches the ‘metal’ and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.

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