Nature2014-06-19 3:10 PM

量子门的成功实现2 Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom

论文摘要 

在一个飞行的光学光子量子位(偏振)和一个被束缚的原子量子位(自旋)之间形成一个量子门,是量子信息学领域一个长期未能实现的目标。这种“门”对于将量子计算升级到大量量子位和将量子通信升级到长距离来说都是所必需的。现在,独立工作的两个小组报告了这种“门”的成功实现。Gerhard Rempe及同事演示了在被激光束缚的一个原子量子位和单独一个光子之间的一个量子门,在其中该光子的偏振正是根据该原子的自旋状态被翻转。Mikhail Lukin及同事描述了一个类似的成果——在被束缚在一个光子晶体附近的单独一个原子与单独一个光子之间的一个量子门效应。

Abstract 

By analogy to transistors in classical electronic circuits, quantum optical switches are important elements of quantum circuits and quantum networks. Operated at the fundamental limit where a single quantum of light or matter controls another field or material system, such a switch may enable applications such as long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum information processing and metrology, and the exploration of novel quantum states of matter. Here, by strongly coupling a photon to a single atom trapped in the near field of a nanoscale photonic crystal cavity, we realize a system in which a single atom switches the phase of a photon and a single photon modifies the atom’s phase. We experimentally demonstrate an atom-induced optical phase shift that is nonlinear at the two-photon level, a photon number router that separates individual photons and photon pairs into different output modes, and a single-photon switch in which a single ‘gate’ photon controls the propagation of a subsequent probe field. These techniques pave the way to integrated quantum nanophotonic networks involving multiple atomic nodes connected by guided light.

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