Nature2014-06-24 3:50 PM

合子转录的起始点 Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters

论文摘要 

脊椎动物胚胎发生期间的 “母型-合子型过渡” (MZT)是转录组的一个巨大变化,这个时候合子基因组被激发,母型转录体被降解。这项研究以核苷酸分辨率标绘出了斑马鱼MZT期间所使用的转录起始点,显示从母型向合子型转录组的过渡以两个不同启动子序列信号之间的切换为特征。RNA转录的起始位置由母型阶段的一个富含A/T的主题和合子中具有根本性区别的代码决定。这两个转录起始点在核心启动子内经常是共存的,甚至还会重叠,同时在卵母细胞和胚胎内都活跃的启动子上,它们是被差异化利用的。

Abstract 

A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression8, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes9. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable their expression in the two regulatory environments. The dissection of overlapping core promoter determinants represents a framework for future studies of promoter structure and function across different regulatory contexts.

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