Nature2014-06-26 2:28 PM

海洋保护的五个步骤 Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features

论文摘要 

海洋保护区是海洋保护策略的一个重要的、不断扩大的构成部分,但它们的有效性却各不相同,而且存在很多争议。本文作者对来自全球一些捕捞区域和87个海洋保护区的数据进行了整合,发现一个保护区的有效性取决于五个关键问题:所允许的捕捞量有多大、相关规定的执行程度、保护措施实行了多长时间、保护区的面积和保护区的隔离程度。只有当这五个条件全部满足时,保护工作才有保障。

Abstract 

In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100 km2), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250 mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value.

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