Nature2014-06-26 3:55 PM

调控性lncRNAs历史非常悠久 The evolution of lncRNA repertoires and expression patterns in tetrapods

论文摘要 

我们对“长非编码RNA”(lncRNAs)的演化史知之甚少,但这方面的信息可帮助了解它们的功能。为此,Henrik Kaessmann及同事发表了对11种四足动物的全部lncRNA及表达模式所做的首次大规模演化研究。他们识别出了超过1万个灵长类特有的lncRNAs和大约2500个高度保守的lncRNAs,其中大约400个很可能起源于至少3亿年前,这在四足动物历史上是非常早的。很多lncRNAs,尤其是那些更古老的,目前仍在积极的使用中,其功能可能主要是调控胚胎发育以及从精子生成到突触传递的其他功能。

Abstract 

Only a very small fraction of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are well characterized. The evolutionary history of lncRNAs can provide insights into their functionality, but the absence of lncRNA annotations in non-model organisms has precluded comparative analyses. Here we present a large-scale evolutionary study of lncRNA repertoires and expression patterns, in 11 tetrapod species. We identify approximately 11,000 primate-specific lncRNAs and 2,500 highly conserved lncRNAs, including approximately 400 genes that are likely to have originated more than 300 million years ago. We find that lncRNAs, in particular ancient ones, are in general actively regulated and may function predominantly in embryonic development. Most lncRNAs evolve rapidly in terms of sequence and expression levels, but tissue specificities are often conserved. We compared expression patterns of homologous lncRNA and protein-coding families across tetrapods to reconstruct an evolutionarily conserved co-expression network. This network suggests potential functions for lncRNAs in fundamental processes such as spermatogenesis and synaptic transmission, but also in more specific mechanisms such as placenta development through microRNA production.

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