Science2014-07-01 2:19 PM

星系M83令人震惊的黑洞 Super-Eddington Mechanical Power of an Accreting Black Hole in M83

论文摘要 

一项新的研究提示,黑洞释放至其宿主星系的能量比先前认为的要多。这一发现将帮助天文学家更好地对黑洞随着时间的演变建模,它也将帮助他们更好地理解这些神秘区域对其宿主星系的影响。太空中的气体会流动或吸积至黑洞;这就是它们成长的方式。在黑洞内的气体变得如此灼热,使得它会发出辐射。然而,根据所谓的爱丁顿极限,向外流的辐射不会超过某一限度(它基于黑洞的质量)否则它会将向内流动的气体吹走。某一黑洞的动能(以喷射流及风的形式)是否受到同一极限的限制则一直不清楚为了弄清这一情况,Roberto Soria及其同事对某一与其宿主星系M83的中心非常远的黑洞的外流进行了1年多的研究。通过分析气体的吸积至黑洞,他们推测了其重量:比太阳的重量要少100倍。研究人员将该黑洞的质量与其外向的动态功率——他们通过观测其周围环境中的红外和射电亮度(它是动态能释放的一个代表)所得到的一个近似量——进行了比较。研究人员发现,该外向流动的动态能功率比有该质量的黑洞的爱丁顿极限要高。这一发现提示,该黑洞可释放出非常高的动态或力能达很长时间——会超过只基于辐射而释放到环境中的能量,而通过辐射释放的能量是在爱丁顿极限的范围之内的。

Abstract 

Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 1040 erg second–1, higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole’s environment.

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