The Federal Reserve injected unprecedented liquidity into banks during the crisis using the discount window and Term Auction Facility. We examine these facilities’ use and effectiveness. We find: small bank users were generally weak, large bank users were not; the funds substituted to a limited degree for other funds; these facilities increased aggregate lending which would have decreased in their absence. The funds enhanced lending of expanding banks and reduced the decline at contracting banks. Small banks increased small-firm lending, while large banks enhanced large-firm lending. Loan quality only improved at small banks, while both left loan contract terms unchanged.