Peers, but not peer pressure, may be key to prescription drug misuse among young adults, a new study suggests.
“With the 18-29 age group we may be spending unnecessary effort working a peer pressure angle in prevention and intervention efforts. That does not appear to be an issue for this age group,” says Brian Kelly, a professor of sociology and anthropology.
“Rather, we found more subtle components of the peer context as influential. These include peer drug associations, peers as points of drug access, and the motivation to misuse prescription drugs to have pleasant times with friends.”
Prescription drug misuse has risen considerably since 2000, and is the most commonly abused substance after alcohol and marijuana for people 14 and older, according to the American Sociological Association. Popular prescription drugs that are most frequently misused are sedatives, painkillers, and stimulants. The research was presented at the association’s annual meeting in San Francisco.
“People normally think about peer pressure in that peers directly and actively pressure an individual to do what they are doing,” says Kelly, who also is director of Purdue’s Center for Research on Young People’s Health.
“This study looks at that form of direct social pressure as well as more indirect forms of social pressure. We find that friends are not actively pressuring them, but it’s a desire to have a good time alongside friends that matters.
“Whether that be because friends are also misusing prescription drugs, or the individual thinks, ‘If I do this, it will allow me to have a better time with my friends,’ we don’t know.”
The findings, collected from 2011-13, are based on survey interviews with 404 adults ages 18 to 29 who misused prescription drugs in the past 90 days. Two hundred fourteen in-person interviews also were conducted. These individuals were recruited from popular nightlife locations such as bars, clubs, and lounges in New York City.
Average misuse of prescription drugs, such as painkillers, sedatives, and stimulants, was 38 times in the past 90 days.
This study evaluated the role of peer factors on three prescription drug misuse outcomes: the frequency of misuse; administering drugs in ways other than swallowing, such as sniffing, smoking, and injecting the drugs; and symptoms of dependency on prescription drugs.
‘HAVE A GOOD TIME’
“We found that peer drug associations are positively associated with all three outcomes,” Kelly says. “If there are high perceived social benefits or low perceived social consequences within the peer network they are more likely to lead to a greater frequency of misuse, as well as a greater use of non-oral methods of administration and a greater likelihood of displaying symptoms of dependence.
“The motivation to misuse prescription drugs to have a good time with friends is also associated with all three outcomes. The number of sources of drugs in their peer group also matters, which is notable since sharing prescription drugs is common among these young adults.”
The National Institute on Drug Abuse supported the research.
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