Seven out of ten Americans say the recent recession’s impact will be permanent—that’s up from five out of ten in 2009 when the slump officially ended.
Other the key findings of the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development’s latest Work Trends report, include:
Despite sustained job growth and lower levels of unemployment, most Americans do not think the economy has improved in the last year or that it will in the next.
Just one in six Americans believes that job opportunities for the next generation will be better than for theirs; five years ago, four in ten held that view.
Roughly four in five Americans have little or no confidence that the federal government will make progress on the nation’s most important problems over the next year.
Much of the pessimism is rooted in direct experience, says Carl Van Horn, coauthor of the report and Heldrich Center professor and director.
“Fully one-quarter of the public says there has been a major decline in their quality of life owing to the recession, and 42 percent say they have less in salary and savings than when the recession began,” Van Horn says.
“Despite five years of recovery, sustained job growth and reductions in the number of unemployed workers, Americans are not convinced the economy is improving.”
He adds that only one in three thinks the US economy has gotten better in the last year and one quarter thinks it will improve next year.
The survey took place between July 24 and August 3 with a nationally representative sample of 1,153 Americans.
The analysis summarizes the effects of the Great Recession by classifying Americans into one of five categories based on how much impact the recession had on their quality of life and whether the change was temporary or permanent. It reveals that:
16 percent of the public, or 38 million people, were “devastated” because they experienced a “major, permanent” change in the quality of their life
19 percent, or 46 million, were “downsized” due to “permanent but minor” changes in standards of living
10 percent, or 24 million were “set back,” experiencing “major, but temporary” changes in their quality of life
22 percent, or 53 million, were “troubled” by the recession and endured only a “minor and temporary” change
Only one in three of the nation’s 240 million adults reported that they were completely “unscathed” by the recession.
“Looking at the aftermath of the recession, it is clear that the American landscape has been significantly rearranged,” says Professor Cliff Zukin, co-director of the Work Trends surveys with Van Horn.
“With the passage of time, the public has become convinced that they are at a new normal of a lower, poorer quality of life. The human cost is truly staggering.”
DESCRIBE THE AMERICAN WORKER
The public paints an extremely negative picture of the American worker as unhappy, underpaid, highly stressed, and insecure about his or her job. Asked to describe the typical American worker, using a list of a dozen words or phrases, just 14 percent checked off happy at work and only 18 percent believe they are well paid.
Two-thirds say that American workers are “not secure in their jobs” and “highly stressed.” Just one in five says the average American worker is well educated or innovative; just one in three checked off ambitious or highly skilled.
And perhaps the most surprising, just one in three checked off that the average American worker is “better than workers in other countries.”
One of the reasons the public does not see the economy as having gotten better is that many remain under tremendous financial stress.
Six in 10 Americans describe their financial condition negatively as only fair (40 percent) or poor (19 percent). One-third report being in good shape; just seven percent describe themselves as being in excellent financial health.
Many report significant losses in the Great Recession. Just 30 percent say they have more in salary and savings than they did before the recession started, less than a third have the same, leaving 42 percent who report having less today than five years ago.
Americans view the recession as causing fundamental and lasting changes in a number of areas of economic and social life. Three in five believe the ability of young people to afford college will not return to prerecession levels, which is significant given the role that education has historically played as a key to upward mobility.
Other fundamental areas where a large segment of the public sees permanent changes are: job security (53 percent), the elderly having to find part-time work after retiring (51 percent), and workers having to take jobs below their skill level (44 percent).
LOTS OF PESSIMISM
Americans are also pessimistic about the future. Only a quarter think economic conditions in the US will get better in the next year, and just 40 percent believe their family’s finances will get better over the next year. Consequently, most do not see themselves getting back to where they were any time soon.
“Despite nearly five years of job growth and declining unemployment levels, Americans remain skeptical that the economy has improved and doubt that it will improve any time soon,” says Van Horn.
“The slow, uneven, and painful recovery left Americans deeply pessimistic about the economy, their personal finances, and prospects for the next generation.”
The report found the public sharply critical of Washington policymakers. More disapprove than approve of the job President Obama is doing by a margin of 46 percent to 54 percent. Even fewer approve of the job Congress is doing—14 percent.
A plurality of 43 percent says they trust neither the president nor Congress to handle the economy. Finally, should Republicans win control of Congress in November, only 26 percent say this will help lower the unemployment rate.
Thirty percent say this would make unemployment worse while 44 percent say it would make no difference.
THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY: STEADY, SLOW, UNEVEN, AND PAINFUL, Published on Journal 《Worktrends》in Aug, 2014.