理论基础：奉承（Ingreciation）是非常重要的社会影响力行为（social influence behavior）。作者引入了一个这种互动博弈过程中万金油的理论叫做平衡理论（balance theory)
Ingratiation in the Workplace: The Role of
Subordinate and Supervisor Political Skill
Long-Zeng Wu, Ho Kwong Kwan, Li-Qun Wei and Jun Liu
Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Hong Kong
Baptist University, Renmin University of China
ABSTRACT Over two decades, social influence researchers have called for a study that would
examine how, why, and when influence tactics are effective. Informed by balance theory, the
present study proposes that subordinate and supervisor political skill impacts the effectiveness
of ingratiation attempts. The results from a survey of 228 supervisor–subordinate dyads in
Chinese firms indicated that subordinates with high political skill are less likely to have their
exhibited ingratiation behaviour perceived by their supervisors; however, supervisors with high
political skill are likely to perceive ingratiation behaviour demonstrated by their subordinates.
Moreover, the most successful condition for enabling subordinates to hide ingratiation from
their supervisors is when the subordinates are politically astute and the supervisors are not.
Furthermore, when supervisors perceive ingratiation behaviour, they rate low on the job
performance and promotability of their subordinates; these low ratings are explained by the
undermined personal reputation of the subordinates due to their ingratiation detected.
Keywords: ingratiation, performance, political skill, promotability, reputation
Political Skill Item Poola
Instructions: Using the following 7-point scale, please place the number on the blank before each item that best
Instructions: describes how much you agree with each statement about yourself.
1 = strongly disagree
2 = disagree
3 = slightly disagree
4 = neutral
5 = slightly agree
6 = agree
7 = strongly agree
1. _____ I find it easy to envision myself in the position of others.†
2. _____ In social situations, it is clear to me just what to say and do.
3. _____ I spend a lot of time and effort at work networking with others. (NA)*
4. _____ I am good at getting others to work well together.
5. _____ I am able to make most people feel comfortable and at ease around me. (II)†
6. _____ I am good at making myself visible with influential people in my organization.
7. _____ I am able to adjust my behavior and become the type of person dictated by any situation.
8. _____ I am able to communicate easily and effectively with others. (II)*
9. _____ It is easy for me to develop good rapport with most people. (II)†*
10. _____ I am good at reading social situations, and determining the most appropriate behavior to demonstrate
the proper impression.
11. _____ I am very conscious of how I am perceived by others.
12. _____ I have always prided myself in having good savvy, street smarts, or political skill at work.
13. _____ I understand people very well. (SA)†
14. _____ I am the one who can get people to work well together.
15. _____ I try to make people feel important by what I say and do.
16. _____ I am good at building relationships with influential people at work. (NA)*
17. _____ I am good at getting others to respond positively to me.†
18. _____ I usually try to find common ground with others.†
19. _____ I think a lot about how, as well as what, I say when presenting an idea to others.
20. _____ I size up situations before deciding how to present an idea to others.
Ferris et al. / Political Skill Inventory 149